In a commitment agreement, the product that Vendeee actually wants to buy is referred to as a “binding product,” while the additional product that the Vendee must purchase to complete the sale is referred to as a “linked product”. Typically, the binding product is a desirable commodity, which is in high demand by Vendees in a particular market. The bound product is generally less desirable, of lower quality or otherwise difficult to sell. For example, film distributors often link the sale of popular video cassettes to the purchase of second films that, due to lack of demand, pile up in their warehouses. An agreement in which a seller conditions the sale of a particular product to a Vendee`s commitment to purchase an additional unrelated product. United States v. Microsoft was another important case of engagement.  For some accounts, Microsoft connects Microsoft Windows, Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player, Outlook Express and Microsoft Office. The United States has claimed that pooling Internet Explorer (IE) to the sale of Windows 98, making IE difficult to remove from Windows 98 (z.B. not to put on the list to “delete programs”) and design Windows 98 to work “unpleasantly” with Net Navigatorscape, represented an illegal link from Windows 98 and IE.
 Microsoft`s counter-argument was that a web browser and email reader are simply part of an operating system contained in other PC operating systems and that product integration was technologically justified. Just as the definition of a car has changed to include things that were once separate products, such as speedometers and radios, Microsoft claimed that the definition of an operating system has changed to include their once distinct products. The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rejected Microsoft`s assertion that Internet Explorer was only one facet of its operating system, but the court ruled that the connection between Windows and Internet Explorer should be analyzed suspensively according to the rule of reason.  The U.S. government settled the settlement before finding a final solution. In a typical commitment agreement, a company sells a product or service to a buyer that is explicitly or implicitly related to the purchase of another product or service from the same seller. For example, a company may set up a walled garden or a closed platform that sells a smart device and can only be purchased through the smart device. In the past, both Microsoft and Apple have been accused of entering into agreements. Let us take the example of a car manufacturer that grouped the tires sold with the manufactured car and a second car manufacturer that linked the purchase of a car to the requirement to buy a specific brand of toolboxes. Other toolbox manufacturers would quickly indicate that there is already a distinct and robust market for toolboxes. The reason tire manufacturers cannot make this argument is that tires, regardless of brand, are necessary to market a car, and without a car, there is no market for tires.