Gupta et al. (2007) evaluated the literature on climate policy. They found that no relevant evaluation of the UNFCCC or its protocol has stated that these agreements will solve the climate problem or be successful.  In these evaluations, it was considered that the UNFCCC or its protocol would not be changed. The Framework Convention and its protocol contain provisions for future policy measures to be taken. The protocol was adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, when greenhouse gases quickly threatened our climate, life on Earth and the planet itself. Today, the Kyoto Protocol continues to live in other forms and its issues are still being discussed. However, the Kyoto Protcol targets are being challenged by climate change deities, who condemn strong scientific evidence of the human impact on climate change. An eminent scholar believes that these climate change deniers are “good” in violation of Roussau`s idea of the social contract, which is an implicit agreement between members of a society to coordinate efforts in the name of general social utility. The movement to reject climate change is hampering efforts to reach an agreement on climate change as a global collective society.  2004 – Russia and Canada ratify the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC, through which the treaty will enter into force on February 16, 2005.
Greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly in several major developing countries and in fast-growing economies (China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Iran) (PBL, 2009).  As a result, emissions in China increased sharply during the 1990-2005 period, often by more than 10% per year. Per capita emissions in non-Schedule I countries remain, for the most part, well below those in industrialized countries. Non-Schedule I countries do not have quantitative commitments to reduce emissions, but they are committed to mitigating measures. China, for example, has a national policy program to reduce emissions growth, which included the closure of older, less efficient coal-fired power plants. The first meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, at the same time as the 11th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).